It is an established practice to differentiate the properties of the radical apparatus and the aerial part of a plant.

Engage, i.e. put a plant in another, means to join the party which has roots in the soil, called rootstock, with a branch or a bud of a different plant called scion.

This method is very useful when you want to take advantage of the characteristics of the rootstock, which can be: better climatic resistance and higher affinity to the ground; robustness to pests and root rot, such as the European vine, with the American vine rootstock as more resistant to phylloxera; phenological particular properties of the rootstock, of which the scion gets the benefits; the vigor of the rootstock according to the vigor of the scion, to the sixth plant, to the type of grape.

The type of grafts is very diverse, and can be grouped into two broad categories:

couplings scion: splitted, ingrown, splitting English, ... and couplings gem: shield, double shield, to whistle, ....

Italian national regulations regarding rootstock cuttings and grafting, prevent the use of varieties that are not derived from clonal selection in the case of the grapevine.

Below is a list of most used rootstocks and their uniqueness.


Kober 5BB: rootstock widespread, drought-resistant and suitable for clay soils.
1103Paulsen :  a rootstock suitable for soils with little fertility, for calcareous and clay soils.
420A Mill. De Gr. : very durable, used in case of dense planting patterns
41B Mill. De Gr. : vigorous, useful in cases of sensitivity to chlorosis in calcareous soils; fears cold soils.