Accommodation soil

One of the first choices to make for the construction of a vineyard is the arrangement of the rows nell'appezzamento, this is usually a function of the slope of the same and the type of soil. In the forms of farming in the counter is recommended north-south orientation of the rows, which allows, in contrast to the east-west, good lighting on the two walls of the row; holdings of exposure to the south and southwest meet the needs of light of the species. In case of situations hilly must set the arrangement of the soil with the aim to eliminate excess water, trying to convey it to reduce the risk of erosion increases with the increase of the slope. The rooms are plain purposes the disposal of water to avoid water stagnation, creating ditches that follow the gradient of the slope from one plot to another, and the rationalization of mechanization, resulting in fields longer than wide easily accessible by appropriate headlands.
In the hilly areas of central Italy accommodation is the most common ritocchino, which provides for the orientation of the rows according to the maximum slope and has the advantage of greatly facilitate the mechanization of the vineyard at the same time contributing to the smooth flow of water (formation of ditches along the diagonal of the field). The main disadvantage of this arrangement is the erosion of the soil surface caused by water which, following the slope to the valley from significant amounts of land, to limit this phenomenon is essential to adopt the interrow grassing of the vineyard.
When the gradients exceed 35-40% can opt for accommodation in terraces or embankments, which provides for the modification of the slope through the use of machines for the movement of the earth. Very often in these situations involving the use of prefabricated structures such as walls or networks for the formation of pillars that allow a certain degree of stability over time of the terrace.
The accommodation at Girapoggio is one of the solutions adopted in the regular slopes characterized by extensive agriculture, with permanent meadows and pastures, even with very steep slopes (up to 45%), the rows are arranged at right angles to the line of maximum slope. The cultivation units are delimited by sluices, whose performance (as Girapoggio) deviates only slightly from that of the level curves, and, if the topographical conditions and the amplitude corporate permit, descend in a spiral around the pad defining bands of ground the width of which varies in function of the slope of the slope (usually 4-5 m). From the hydraulic point of view this arrangement is very effective but the irregularity of the plots makes it difficult mechanical operations typical of intensive agriculture; machines liable, moreover, upset with slopes greater than 20%. The Girapoggio is not feasible on soils rich in expandable or swellable clays (such as those Marches) as they, during rainy periods, are subject to landslides.