Botanical characteristics

The vine is a climbing shrub with irregular natural growth habit, generally determined by the type of farming, it is a deciduous species that goes dormant during the winter and that is why it is important to use iron stakes to hold the cuttings.
The following are brief descriptions of the morphology of the woody structures of the shrub and its vegetative and reproductive organs.
The screws were born from seed is the root taproot, but ordinarily, since the propagation is performed for the vegetative parts (cuttings grafted), the roots are only collated, affecting mainly the layer of soil between 30 and 80 cm from the surface, and if the soil permits they may deepen to several meters in depth surviving prolonged periods of drought.
The trunk, also called stem or strain, is the support of the plant and can be more or less developed depending on the form of rearing. Are almost always necessary media for its structuring
guardians iron in the initial phase, in fact the screw is a liana that always maintains a certain degree of elasticity. The strain is coated from a bark, the ritidoma, that in Vitis vinifera can be detached in longitudinal strips. On inserting the stem branches (branches more years).
The branches are woody structures that have the same age of the trunk a year or less with respect to it and branch off from the same. They are made of old wood with more than two years of age. When it comes to large branches placed on the horizontal seams are talking about permanent, on which plug directly into the branches of a year, also called branches, fruiting canes or twigs.
The fruit head is a structure in lignification virtually complete (the branch still green, not lignified and attached with the leaves is said bud) and, in phase of vegetative rest, consists of a series of nodes and internodes; little branched but is can stretch to a few meters, in the initial part of the internodes are short, while they are more spaced apart in the intermediate and final.
The gems are divided into hibernating or dormant, ready and latent. The first can be found on the node of the branch and, starting from the spring vegetative growth, give rise to the production facilities, the dormant buds are different and contain the previous spring bud already preformed. The latent buds are inserted on the stem or on branches and give life to unproductive shoots can suddenly after an indefinite number of years. On a bud growing in the vicinity of winter buds, which will hatch the following year, there are gems that originate buds ready sterile or unproductive in the same year of vegetative growth. All the buds on the vine are mixed, with the formation of buds and inflorescences.
The leaves, with a long stalk, are large and palmate, with flap whole or divided into 3-5 lobes, green in color more or less intense depending on the variety, while the underside is lighter and can be covered with hair . On a sprout leaves are positioned in the vicinity of the nodes, in alternating manner and holistic (a leaf is in the same position every 2 knots).
The inflorescence is a cluster consisting of the screw inserted on the node from the opposite side of the leaf. Usually, on a shoot there are 1 to 3 bunches placed 2nd to 7th node, after the last cluster in the same position, you distribute the tendrils or cirri which are bodies which have a development spiral, helical and allow the ' anchoring bud to a support of any nature. The cluster is made up of a central axis of said spine, on which are inserted lateral branching, said bunches, which carry the flowers.
The flower is hermaphrodite in most of the vines (grape varieties), in the case of some cultivars such as Lambrusco di Sorbara, Piccolit and Moscato pink is feminine, so it needs cross-pollination of other varieties, is done either by the wind pollinating insects (bees), while men in the American vines from rootstock.
The fruit is a berry, also known as grape, brought by a pedicel that connects it to the gleanings, the color varies, depending on the grape variety, from green to yellow, pink to red-violet color, from black or bluish-black.
The peel or skin is rich in coloring matter, tannic and aromatic, is also coated with a waxy substance called bloom. The pulp or mesocarp consists of large thin-walled cells, from which we extract the juice rich in sugars and organic acids. The endocarp is usually constituted by 4 seeds or seeds that were not formed in seedless grapes as the fruit was originated in the absence of fertilization.