Features of the vines

The vines are divided in wine grapes, table grapes and dried grapes which are of minor importance. Can be supported by tutors tied with stakes hook.

The wine varieties are very numerous and, for their use, generally refers to the production specifications, for example DOC (controlled denomination of origin) and I.G.T. (IGT), each of which covers several areas, differing from the others we have also grapes, red wine, white wine grapes and white grapes suitable for sparkling wines.

The most famous red wine cultivars are: Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot (of French origin, however, are grown in the most important wine-growing areas), Barbera, Dolcetto, Nebbiolo (widespread, especially in Piedmont), Sangiovese, Montepulciano (typical of central Italy ), the Lambrusco (mainly typical of Emilia), Canaiolo, Aleatico (spread throughout Tuscany), Gaglioppo (typical grape variety from Calabria), Primitivo (grown mainly in the province of Taranto), Calabrese and Nerellos (typical Sicilian varieties).

The most important white wine grape varieties are: Chardonnay, the Pinots (French varieties now cultivated worldwide), Riesling (German, widespread in northern Italy), Tokai Friulano (grown in Friuli and Veneto), Verdicchio (grape Marche ), Catarrato White (Sicilian variety), the Moscati, the Malvasia and Trebbiano (cultivars throughout Italy, but they differ from area to area).
White grape varieties such as Chardonnay, the Pinots (white, gray and black), the Moscati, the Malvasia, Trebbiano i, Riesling and Verdicchio fit for sparkling wine.
The cultivation of table grapes can be implemented, with satisfactory results, only under special conditions that are found in more restricted areas than wine grapes. Are of great interest trends spring, summer and autumn as in the first case, the allegation should be uniform without millerandage (seedless berries remain small when ripe) in the summer season the early ripening grapes are harvested in a timely and autumn does not have to develop rot on grapes later. Ideal conditions you have in areas with hot, dry climate and a good but not excessive water availability in the soil, either natural or irrigation. In the case of family farming, in climates of northern Italy, it is advisable to limit the use of early varieties, with maturing by the end of August, this because those later fail to mature and are often subject to rot.
If you use guardians with stakes hook can reduce the time.
Among the elements that are of importance for table grapes are the characteristics of the cluster (must be loose, so little branched and compact, regular and rather large) and in particular the berry, which must have a large size, with crisp flesh , good flavor and aroma, with thin skin, but firm to withstand transport. In the last 15-20 years the market has demanded seedless table grapes but with good taste; still, through genetic improvement, you try to get seedless grapes (seedless) with a good shelf life and flavor.
The vines table most common are: Baresana, Italy, Queen of vineyards, Alphonse Lavallée, Primus, Cardinal, Michele Palieri, Pizzutello White, Red Globe and Victoria. The seedless cultivars are: Centennial Seedless, Crimson Seedless, Sultana, Sugraone and Empress.

The cultivation of grapes to be dried, from the economic point of view, can only be achieved in climates in summer and early autumn dry. To obtain a high-quality production are preferable seedless grapes, early ripening berries that are soft, non-sticky, and the varieties used for drying are Sultana, Corinth and Zibibbo.
The vines can be distinguished from each other thanks ampelography, the science that deals with the morphological description of the species and varieties of vine, also studies the phenological characteristics, attitudes, cultural and technological (composition of the berries, sugar, flavors, tannins, dyes etc..). Due to the large number of cultivars available, perhaps beyond 5000, have been compiled some real cards grape variety, to differentiate between the varieties are considered the young shoots (characteristics of the apex), leaves (eg color, number of lobes, shape of the flap, the presence of hairs on the underside), the sex of flowers, the berries (size and shape) and the cluster (size and compactness).