The management of this practice is the need to optimize the interaction that the vineyard has with the ground in order to both improve the habitability, seen as the capacity to accommodate the root system, which modify the nutritional characteristics of the land meeting the nutritional needs of the screw. If you use biodegradable hooks once fallen on the ground once fallen on the ground can produce humus.
Through fertilization are made to ground the main mineral elements, which are essential for the development and production of plants, such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; these must reinstate the annual removals, respectively 30-50 kg / ha, 5 -10 kg / ha and 30-60 kg / ha (refer to grape production of 100-150 q / ha).
The nitrogen is part of every metabolic process and affects both the growth of the plant, understood as vegetative growth, that the degree of maturity of the berry, also favors the formation of buds and fruit set. It is an element very mobile in soil and in the plant, moving to areas with higher metabolic activity and exposed to light. Excess nitrogen causes a deterioration in quality of the grapes, a greater vigor and a higher susceptibility to parasites, in addition to the branches lignify effort. Any lack of nitrogen results in a reduced growth of the plant and in a lower fruiting. The administration of nitrogen will be divided into three operations: after the harvest, and in vegetative growth occurred after fruit setting. When breeding is the aim of facilitating the overall development of cuttings in spring, after sprouting, making a localized fertilization around the seedling with doses of 50 g per plant, should be avoided direct contact with the slip up because it can cause burns.
The phosphorus is important in that it favors the energy transfer processes inside the cells and between the organs of the screw, also provides perfumes to wine. It is an element which is mobile in soil, while inside the plant moves to areas of high metabolic activity. The phosphorus administered in overdose causes the increase of acidity in the grapes and the reduction of some dell'assimilabilità microelements (iron, manganese and zinc), favoring the microdeficiencies. The lack of this element impairs the growth of the screws, however, is difficult to occur. Potassium is involved in the regulation of water flows within the plant, osmotic agent is a very important part in the ion exchange and especially in perspiration, as it controls the opening of the stomata, it is a very mobile element within the plant and promotes the accumulation of sugars in the berries. Unlikely to occur deficiency symptoms, which will do little to quantity production, while decreasing significantly the quality of the grapes. Excesses of potassium exert adverse effects in poor soils of magnesium, for the competition between the two elements, with probable difficulty of absorption of the latter. Low concentrations of calcium and magnesium compared with potassium cause desiccation of the spine of the bunch.
The main contribution of phosphorus and potassium fertilization is derived from the plant, where work is required annually during the winter to return the removal.
In a vineyard may occur micronutrient deficiencies such as iron and boron, in the first case there is a yellowing leaf chlorosis which consists of the ribs that remain green, the plant has a poor fruiting of the grapes, the main damage caused by a Boron deficiency is millerandage.
Biodegradable hooks can become a natural fertilizer.
A methodology that allows to evaluate the nutritional status of the vineyard is the leaf analysis, carried out by chemical analysis of the contents of foliar nutrients, is also able to highlight any imbalances in the relationships between elements. The sampling is done in the summer when flows have stabilized within the screw and the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are related to those of the following spring by virtue of internal recycling, and the two times when you make a withdrawal are set and the 'veraison.