The time of harvest is identified following the trend of aging in post veraison by determining the following parameters: average weight of the bunches and berries, sugar content, pH and total acidity. Because on the same plant, the different clusters have never the same level of maturation, (those closest to the strain have a higher sugar content than those that are at the end of the shoot, the more mature clusters are located, generally more away from the ground), withdrawals are made on all parts of the plant. Given this heterogeneity, may be conducted, at a distance of 10 days, 3-4 random sampling of sufficient quantities of 500 grape picking grapes whole, making the average weight of berries, a few galvanized posts in the same piece, a different exposure, because it is important to know the situation of the plot and have an archive that allows us to understand what is happening and predict the relationship between the sample and the historical ones. The optimal time of harvest is believed to be one in which the relationship between sugar content and total acidity reaches the maximum value in the case of sparkling wines collection tends to be early to get a wort with an acidity of 8.5 -9 g / l, expressed as tartaric acid, while for aging wines is delayed to have a good sugar.
The harvest is done manually severing the cluster at the base and placing it into baskets or containers in which respect the integrity, separating the grapes in a bad state of health, is the kind of collection more frequent and more expensive, on average, the hourly output of a vintner is around 80-150 kg of grape harvesting. Subsequently, the grapes are transported quickly so as to arrive in the cellar as possible intact using potassium metabisulfite powder on the bottom of the receptacles. Are avoided large receptacles in which the lower layers would be crushed by the weight of the upper ones. In fact it is very important to avoid that the grapes are compressed and crushed during shipping, because this would favor any fermentations which are always detrimental to the quality of the product. In case you are aiming to achieve high quality production is better to perform the collection in boxes that preserve the integrity of most of the clusters.
The mechanical harvesting,
is very convenient if you use galvanized postes,has spread more in foreign countries, primarily in France. A grape harvesting machine is composed of a beater apparatus which separates the berries and can operate in either horizontal or vertical shaking, a group of ventilation that takes away the leaves, an apparatus spoiler product seconded and conveyors.
The harvesters have a vertical shaking a shaker-ray that operates the separation of the berries, working on forms of farming at GDC
The machines are equipped with horizontal shaking auctions free or blocked on both sides that they drop the berries are grape straddle (pass over the trees) that operate on controspalliere. The problems mainly concern the mechanization involves the rupture of the berries with the subsequent release of the must, the simultaneous presence of plant materials such as leaves and twigs, the inability to select the clusters according to the state of aging and health, loss of must on the plant for leakage and soil, leaf damage by necrosis and rapid mass transport of a more or less liquid, so the risk of fermentation is higher than the manual harvest. The vintage machines are to be used in vineyards and with not too pendulous plant carattestiche appropriate, from the poles to the width of the headland prestressed adequate.