For the choice of cuttings is important to resort to the use of certified planting material, having a blue card in order to have better warranties, either genetic (clonal selection) and health; logically it is more expensive than the standard material (orange card) in which no was subjected to clonal selection, so it is less reliable than the material certificate.
The choice of grape variety is definitely the most important aspect among those considered at the time of implant. Generally, the guidelines in this type of decision, are related almost exclusively to the tradition, formalized today with the lists of varieties recommended and authorized, to the needs of the market and the enological objective that we resolved. Another feature to consider are the specifications of the names present in the area which regulate the varieties, the percentages, the number of plants per hectare that must be present in the vineyards to produce grapes suitable for wine to become a designation of origin. It must take account of the berry color, the typical aromas of the different cultivars and the greater or lesser early ripening. With regard to the maturation, the choice depends on a number of factors related to the climate of the area, but also to share and exposures in which we operate; generally recommended to avoid too early varieties (Chardonnay, Moscati, Pinots, Riesling, Dolcetto) in warm climates and, conversely, those late (Sangiovese, Montepulciano, Nebbiolo, Cabernet Franc and Sauvignon Blanc, Verdicchio) in areas that are too cold.
To make the choice of suitable planting density must be taken into account in particular the types of farming (described in the next section), usually in the case of systems in the counter, the sixth plant is mainly adopted 3 X 1.5 m with over 2200 plants per hectare, in the space between the rows (between rows) need at least 2,5 m in order to allow the transit of mechanical means carrying out the cultivation operations.
Should also perform a sampling of the soil for svolgerne the analysis, which provides guidance for the formulation of the fertilization of the plant, the type of processing to perform, on the material to be used and on the possibility to make the soil improvers.
Once all these choices must carry out operations prior to planting such as:
-Leveling and eventual stone clearance of the land;
-Machining double-layer via subsoiler which affects the soil, not reversing plates, up to 120 cm of depth, followed by a normal plowing 30-50 cm so as not to bring to the surface inert material, which can occur in ' execution of the groove (deep plowing up to 120 cm), which is still widespread;
Plant-fertilization with manure in doses of 500-600 q / ha and fertilization with phosphorus and potassium with at least 150-200 kg/ha (phosphorus pentoxide and potassium oxide) both;
-In the case of land subject to waterlogging, training a network of drainage ditches through;
-Up the soil;
-Sixth-tracking and pegging;

protections rooted.

The planting of cuttings is usually performed in November, so that they can benefit from the autumn rains and allow for the development of the roots that will be ready in the spring for germination in the case of a planting carried out in March will be necessary to intervene with the irrigation of Rescue summer, while for plants after this period (until June), we resort to material frigoconservato.
At the time of planting the rooted vine roots are shortened to 10 cm and leave 2-3 buds (the variety chosen), on this occasion can be used all'inzaffardatura (immersion in a mixture of soil, manure and water, or even water alone, this operation is indispensable in the case of installations delayed) in order to rehydrate the plant material.
The cuttings can be planted in different ways such as: digging a hole 20 X 20 cm 30 cm deep, with a fork and transplanting machines.
The plant consists of a fork punching the ground with a kind of fork and then insert the barbatella with 3-4 cm long root.
The planting machines with transplanters significantly reduces the use of labor; these means operate according to a rectilinear alignment given by a laser beam emitted from a transmitter in the head of the field and a receiver on the machine, which first performs the opening of the groove in the which is placed the slip up, and you then closing the furrow and soil compaction on the sides, it is essential that the soil is the state of tempera and finely tuned
used are of good protections rooted.
The coupling point must be above the level of the ground otherwise it can emit roots (liberation), in the past it was covered with a cumuletto ground to prevent damage from cold, wind and sun, today this technique is carried out not more than the graft is coated with paraffin.
In addition, you can run the mulch covering the affected area with a row of black plastic film: this favors a greater development of the grapes during the first years after implantation, even the shelter (plastic bags) allow a high development in the 1st year of planting expounding a protection against mechanical, herbicides, rodent and pest development.
That same year, the plant, or the following year to it, is built a robust framework to support the aerial part of the screws, the first thing to burrow 50-90 cm poles, posts (every 5-6 m l ' one from the other) which typically have a length of 2,8-3 me may be of wood, metal and concrete (those in prestressed concrete are the most used due to their flexibility and resistance to stress). Then you tend the first wire and guardians of iron in the vicinity of the plants, attached to it.
The galvanized steel wire (diameter 1.5 to 2.7 mm) are generally positioned on floors 3-4, two for each floor (double wire containment) subsequent to the first in order to contain the vegetation, their height varies with the type of farming, they are taking a lot of importance as they reduce the number of tutors. The wires should be always in tension, which is adjusted using tensioner fixed or mobile, at the head of the rows are composed of plate anchors in concrete or iron helical screws that have the task of giving stability to the scaffold.
The economic life of a vineyard lasts 30 years, the replanting on the same plot is a practice not recommended as it can manifest phenomena of soil fatigue caused by fungal parasites (Armillaria) that cause root rot, infestation of nematodes (Xiphinema and Meloidogine) and toxic substances emitted from the roots. The best thing would be to wait a few years devoting the soil to field crops, or, in the case of an immediate replanting, use resistant rootstocks to ristoppio (Salt Creek). If the previous vineyard had sixths rather large, the new can be implanted in staggered rows to make sure that the young plants are positioned nell'interfila of the old vineyard.
Keep the grassed inter-row is important because, in addition to promoting the reduction of erosion (especially in relation to accommodation ritocchino), enriches the soil organic matter resulting from both natural and rapid renewal of the roots of the grasses, the material is left in place the mechanical operations of chopping, allows the carrying out of any cultural practices after a rain, which is not possible on a clay soil worked.