Special pruning

<<Pruning soft>>  in breeding and production

Recently a Swiss research has found the best quality in the wines produced from vines 40-50 years compared to plants of 7-8 years, especially in red grapes, by virtue of which show greater balance, which allows them to better tolerate the effects of climate change and in particular the prolonged lack of water. So therefore aim - as if they are placed the two agronomists Friuli Marco Simonit and Pierpaolo Sirch - to help the screw to age well is all the more meritorious, as well as necessary. Marco Simonit and Pierpaolo Sirch, in fact, have developed a method of pruning with this very purpose: to manage the vine with pruning always on young wood to bring it to a happy old age. I have witnessed the evolution of this work because, even ten years ago, they called me in to show me the Friuli vineyards on which they were applying their intuition. I began my remarks now and soon I became convinced that it could be very interesting for the future of our wine. So I began to make known to the Italian winemakers their innovative approach, which was inspired all'alberello. Taking two examples, are apparently very different, the trees and the tree-lined Sulcis Taurasi, we note that in both cases, the pruning rule out cuts on the drums, or on the wood of several years and is instead made only of branches of two years. Nell'alberello this cut is made on the spur, Avellino on a branch in the tree to fall, over several years, led by a cordon up permanently. With these modes of pruning, which can be applied to any form of livestock, some important results are obtained for the vitality of the plant. Since the screw does not have the ability to produce a callus on the big scar wounds, and can do it on cuts tissue with younger, these lesions are not only a way to access the fungi responsible of esca and dell'eutipiosi, but cause the progressive death of the important parts of the stem, reducing the efficiency in the transport of solutes and metabolites. Often the presence of these traits of dead tissue is not perceived from the outside and the sudden death of some plants during the worst drought of summer is interpreted as a normal and unpredictable.

The reasons for the longevity

One thing is certain: in front of a vine of 80-100 years, it is still a po'sorpresi and full of admiration. It is an encounter, however, more and more rare in European viticulture, while it is easier to be lucky enough to find very old vines, sometimes more than 150 years, in the Near East or in areas of Australia's oldest wine growing. In viticulture prefillosserica remember numerous examples of plants that also had 300 to 400 years (445 years for a screw present in the Novarese, cited around the twenties, or the upper part of the vineyard of Clos de Vougeot in Burgundy where the screws at the time of French Revolution had 400-500 years). Still remember this one screw at the Jesuit College in Reims (F), which has more than 300 years and produces 30 kg of grapes which produce a wine for Mass, or the lives of Versoaln, a grape that has now disappeared, this in South Tyrol Prissian, more than 350 years. In Campania the Amalfi Amalfi den and in Irpinia is not difficult to find strains, respectively Dyer, Aglianico or Sirica, older than 250 years. This begs the question where does this longevity and we are instinctively inclined to make a comparison with men who live 90-100 years and lead them well. You can not give a clear answer: for men depends on the genetic inheritance from the diet, lifestyle, from the emotional life, the way in which address the psychological difficulties. For the screw, in addition to the special conditions of root development, which must be very extensive, the lack of the graft has a role certainly outstanding balance with vegetation and production of that plant had during his life and that has allowed to react without consequences to states of stress such as drought, to root asphyxia, from food shortages. As for the man this longevity is not the result of chance, but is the result of specific choices made by the winegrower. From a summary of census of places in Italy where you can meet these screws, it is noted that the common denominator that binds the different expressions of those viticulture is represented by the methods of pruning. The longevity of the vine pruning improves if we exclude cuts to the stem and is done only on shoots of two years

An aid to the viticulture of the future

Why is it important to maintain the integrity and vitality of the ancient vineyards? Not only for the quality of the wines they produce or to the scenic charm - cultural emanating around him, but because they represent an important reserve of genes to be used in the creation of new clones, probably more tolerant to diseases and viruses than others. It is likely that these plants have in their genetic memory, related to the transmission of the epigenetic code - ie code that regulates genes through biochemical processes, without changing any of the DNA sequences in the course of generations, thus allowing the expression of the genes so smooth, with no mutations that normally alter the behavior of plants, both positive and negative - interesting elements. Not to mention that the vineyards are these patriarchs of viticulture contain a high variability not only intravarietal, but also represented by other varieties, which are often rare, as in the past the custom was to create plurivarietali vineyards. As it is easy to understand, these screws are a biological material from the ephemeral life, that they may die suddenly. To avoid losing their genetic value would be necessary to identify all of these patriarchs, producing a descriptive form and attaching a DNA profile. With the cooperation of growers, who become the guardians of these screws, is done with pruning techniques appropriate to the conservation of the plant and are regularly collected in a collection ex-situ screws is derived to evaluate the genetic aspects of that production. This project was initiated a few years ago, with the collaboration of some important Italian wineries, from the Department of Plant Breeding, University of Milan. In particular, as part of a project funded by the fiefs of St. Gregory of Sorbo Serpico (AV) have been identified and described several strains of Aglianico Campania and other vines older than 200 years. In Sardinia, thanks to a project called Akea ("to Kent'Annos," a hundred years in Sardinian), is being evaluated in men centenarians the relationship between genes and the expression of certain proteins that are present only in people very elderly. Once again man lives and are marked by a common destiny.

<<Pruning soft>> against the deterioration of the vineyards

• Observing the principles of pruning of old wine vineyards in long-lived, it was developed the method Simonit & Sirch - Preparers of grapes. The preservation of the physical structure of the screw ensures continuity vascular which positively influences the balance and, therefore, the quality of production •

Over the past thirty years in viticulture there has been a fundamental change with regard to the types of farming. Throughout Italy, albeit with different dynamics, it has gone from traditional forms
using wood posts, more or less expanded, forms in the counter. More and more frequently the vineyards have been converted to or Guyot cordon. These two forms allow the thickening of the vineyards sought to reduce the average production per plant and achieve quality improvements. In some cases, the approval of viticultural systems has also led to significant changes in the landscape simplifying and reducing the diversity that should characterize a particular territory. In Friuli, for example, the Tocai and Refosco, which traditionally have been bred in double inverted are passed to the Guyot pruning, the same passage has suffered from the Sangiovese in Tuscany, which is upside down in the past cordon. In the traditional Trentino Trentino pergola was partially replaced with the Guyot. The same transition occurred in Campania for tennecchie, in Sicily and Puglia, where the tents and the trees have been replaced with the two types of farming in the counter. In Veneto pergolas, Sylvoz Casarsa and often were converted to Guyot and spurred cordons. In traditional forms in the counter, for example, upside down, the distance between the strains was at least 1.0-1.2 m; new Guyot instead have distances between the strains that vary on average from 0.7 to 0.9 me hardly more than a meter. One model wine therefore was consolidated throughout the country. This system of 'fixed geometry' has amplified the problems all'acrotonia of the screw. If the traditional expanded forms allowed the development of branches leading away from the stem as the single plant had a certain amount of space available for its development, through a very dense planting patterns that freedom in fact it is very small. A distance of 30 years from the introduction of these forms are evident now all over the country the problems associated with containment dell'acrotonia of the screw.

The vine is a creeper

In nature, the screw can be developed for several meters due to its characteristic of being a plant acrotona, which prefers that the sprouting of buds distal (ie farther away than the insertion of the branch on the trunk) than proximal. Without pruning, then, the vegetation moves away rapidly from the base of the trunk. The vineyard is currently very man-made, that is strongly influenced by the growth in the number of human interventions. Winter pruning is the act of mutilating more technical undergoing the screw. From perennial plant with behavior liana the screw becomes a shrub from volume limited and pre-determined in the forms and in the space by the distance of the plant, by way of driving and the type of pruning. This geometric constraint forces the grower to suppress every year most of the wood product. What arborist today would cut more than 80 to 90% of the wood apple tree on a vintage or a pear to contain the development of reflection without causing a return of vigor? The trees - well aware of the pruners of fruit trees and forest - always have the tendency to reform what has been taken away from them with external interventions. This principle is often used to restore vigor to trees weakened by practicing topping. In the case of the vine, winter pruning - technical act mutilating - is repeated every year. The cuts frequent and systematic of the branches near the trunk and vegetative points forcing the screw to continuously adapt to a new organization of the lymph circulation: the routes are modified and stressed differently from year to year.

Physiology and health of the vine

The screw as all living beings get older. This may be normal aging, physiological, and then dictated by the passage of time or speeded up if, in addition to the time for action by external causes, to name a few: attacks pathogens irreversible viros particularly serious stress periods more or less prolonged, inefficiencies physiological level, indiscriminate pruning or more. Often, watching from outside a screw that does not show any symptoms, it is said that "it is healthy." In fact, the comments about the external condition of the plant give us a partial idea of ​​his "health" general. Through observation of the external condition of the wood, for example, we can not make an assessment on the integrity of the vascular system of transport. The three plants in, for example, are the same age, and the same variety of the same vineyard potato Guyot. In the vineyard were productive and externally different in shape but similar in appearance, showing no particular symptom of illness. Once the longitudinal section of the stems was evident the different "state of health" among the three screws. In two of these plants the portion of the healthy wood concerned by the transport system is reduced considerably. The same observation can be done on plants of different ages spurred cordon: outwardly all three seem "healthy", while two of them inside of necrosis at the spurs and a drastic reduction of the vascular system. These observations confirm what was widely reported in the literature about the main causes of this internal decay, which can be ascribed to the plagues cutting which affects the efficiency of the conductor. After deleting a branch, the vessels that feed it dry out and become unusable forming a cone of desiccation which extends into the living wood. All the more so the cuts are large size and run on old wood, the more dieback expand rapidly and become deeper in the wood. The extent of desiccation inside in correspondence of a cut and the cone of desiccation are directly proportional to the size of the cut itself. If in the course of the years are executed numerous pruning cuts, the screw responds with the natural abandonment of a good part of stem. The sores focus on the head of the trunk and the way of the lymph change rapidly due to the convergence of the cones of desiccation. The efficiency of the transport system, in these conditions, is compromised. To have an efficient conductor system must build a inner channel without interruptions due to the cones of desiccation. It is important not to make cuts to big size working with small cuts on young wood of 1 or 2 years of age. This linear growth is just that little tree is pruned always on the top of the branches that lead the Spurs. An efficient transport system is shown outwardly in terms of the balance of the plant. Vegetoproduttiva The expression of a plant with the transport system intact is more uniform than that of a plant that has a conduction compromised. This homogeneity is recognizable on germination, fertility, phenological stages, maturation, lignification. It is that balance of the plant, and more generally of the vineyard done with wood posts, which has always sought after as a guarantee for a quality production.

In the light of these observations, the pruning

- Fundamental agronomic operation

- Emerges as a practice "delicate" given the extent of the damage it can cause to the plant if done incorrectly.

Genesis of the method

Including how important it is to perform properly the winter pruning, the next step was to look for the oldest vineyards and observe the principles of pruning that were being taken. In this way we visited an infinite number of European vineyards and we were confronted with the pruners older, carefully analyzing their way of pruning and the health of their plants. So we could see that the vines longest were those bred to tree in its most classic form. The cultivation system is particularly long-lived tree is pruned because always on young wood, up to 2 years of age and develops creating branches of the main stem, never coming eliminated old and vital portions of the plant. This system has no constraints of space and can grow freely in three dimensions. The main difficulty of our research has been to transfer the techniques of cutting sapling in modern viticulture, represented - as mentioned - especially the more intensive cropping systems in rows, such as the Guyot and spurred cordon. This path - lasted more than twenty years spent observing, comparing ourselves to try and work with the old pruners - has led us to discover that their approcciotivazione sapling is particularly long-lived because they always drinking on young wood, up to 2 years of age and develops creating branches of the main stem, never coming eliminated old and vital portions of the plant. This system has no constraints of space and can grow freely in three dimensions. The main difficulty of our research has been to transfer the techniques of cutting sapling in modern viticulture, represented - as mentioned - especially the more intensive cropping systems in rows, such as the Guyot and spurred cordon. This path - lasted more than twenty years spent observing, comparing ourselves to try and work with the old pruners - has led us to discover that their approach - especially the more intensive cropping systems in rows, such as the Guyot and spurred cordon. This path - lasted more than twenty years spent watching, try and work was substantially different from that adopted and popularized in Italy. The correct approach in winter pruning focuses on the preservation of the physical structure of the screw. First you should try to reduce the number of pruning wounds. Secondly, avoiding to perform large cuts and pruning only the young shoots, you will achieve the objectives of reducing the cutting surfaces and construction of the continuous channel of shipping vessels. The wounds of small dimensions, in particular those to load the timber of one or two years, can be absorbed by the growth of wood. This is done most easily by doing a cut 'clean', which does not remove the gems in the crown located at the base of the wood of one and two years of age. It is, moreover, attention and practices that could restrict the entry of pathogens in wounds and then help maintain the physical integrity of the wood within the shaft. comparing with the old pruners - has led us to discover that their approach. The rare presence of old vineyards in Italy - in our opinion - also due to the lack of knowledge of the current pruning techniques, however, are no longer taught. Eventually we came to the conclusion that we should seek a new way of managing the plant, which allows to maintain complements the permanent structure. This led to the method Simonit & Sirch - Preparers grape of "pruning soft", which is explained in the next article.

An aid in the fight against Esca?

It is known that almost all diseases of the vine tree, including the bait, are caused by fungi that find their main route of entry into the wounds, particularly those of pruning. If dell'eutipiosi were evaluated are the days when the wounds are susceptible to infection, in that the bait has been investigated on the same subject and also the times at which the chances of infection are higher for the increased presence (on the plant , in the air) of propagules of fungal agents. With this information, ably managed, you can groped some form of containment of the disease. But not enough to prevent the bait - the fight against the disease is in place at the time impractical - also serve others and more determined interventi.Uno of these could be that of the "soft pruning" which, thanks to the small size of wounds - which can also keep them open to infection for several months - reduces the probability of entry of fungi bait. If we are prevented cuts back - the more aggressive ones for the vascular system - will further reduce the chances of infection. Respecting and maintaining a 'fluidity' in the development of the vascular system, not broken up by large wounds and deviations from the continuous to which the succession of cuts forced him, could also coincide with a better functioning, better defense against infection, a better internal protection branch. Those commented here are educated guesses, but only assumptions, which is worth investigating, in the belief that only a combined set of interventions, those mentioned here, and others, will be able to get the better of the bait.

<<Pruning of the vine>>, cut only wood young

The permanent structure of the vine is made from the trunk or stem and from the root system. The efficiency and the health of these organs is the basis of a correct operation of the plant.

Customs of pruning

The vines in the counter frequently used in recent years are two: the Guyot and spurred cordon. Below we will examine the pruning and those of the usual method Simonit & Sirch - Preparers of grapes.


Winter pruning of Guyot is to maintain a branch for production, also known as fruiting, and a spur lower for renewal. In practice, you perform the following denominations: the so-called "cutting of the past", with which it removes the fruiting that produced the previous year, and the "cutting of the present", with which you choose between the two branches that have developed from the spur, the new fruiting and the new spur. Working in this way, year after year, will be formed at the end of the stem an enlarged often referred to as 'head of willow', which should generate shoots continuously. The objective of the pruner is to keep the "head" 15-20 cm under the wire, ie at a distance needed to facilitate the folding of the fruit head, operating a continuous renewal in this area without having to perform large cuts of return. However over the years saw the development of branches starting from the head and to the progressive increase of the stem, with the consequent difficulty of bending and loss of fruit-bearing buds. As a result of wounds and sores that are produced annually on the head of willow occurs a progressive closure and constant flow of lymphatic needed to feed the fruiting and spur. This results in a reduction of bud burst on the head and then the difficulty for the future to have branches useful for renewal. To prevent aging and promote rejuvenation of the plant - the solution taught in schools and universities and indicated in the literature - is that of "cutting back" or the "topping." This technique is recommended to leave a spur lower the head, from the stem, on which return with the objective to reposition further down the new head of willow. In doing so, the frequent capitozzature cause the stem of the wounds of considerable size, with the loss of important pieces of wood and compromised lymphatic transport system.

Spurred cordon

The shape of spurred cordon is constituted by a vertical stem which extends horizontally, on which are inserted at a distance of 15-30 cm, the "vegetative points." The vegetative points are the production centers are located where the spurs, 1 or 2 gems enclaves, which are renewed annually for production. The number of vegetative points varies according to the sixth plant and objectives enologici, corporate, environmental and genetic. The pruning traditional teaches to maintain the spurs close as possible to the cord, preventing the development of branches. In the event that this happens, there will be a bud at the base of the branch that the next year will be spurred by the elimination of the same branch. We carry, in practice, the "cut back" as the Guyot. These operations are performed repeatedly over the years, determine the horizontal cordon numerous wounds, which make it difficult disseccandosi the issue of shoots and promote the loss of vegetative points, resulting in loss of productivity. This determines solvents explants vineyards no longer sufficiently productive, but still at a young age.

Method Simonit & Sirch Preparers grape

The method Simonit & Sirch - Preparatori grape is constituted by a series of modular processes which, if applied continuously over the years, nourish a controlled growth of individual plants, effecting cuts only on young wood of one or two years of age. This new approach, inspired by the little tree pruning, allows the plant to generate a growing structure that will characterize the type of farming. In particular on cordon develops a permanent trunk (main channel) with various branches in function of the number of vegetative points (secondary manifolds). These manifolds are growing upwards in a controlled manner as the branches of a tree. On Guyot, having as the upper limit of the wire bending, it will have to develop a structure parallel to the wire bending itself, which assume a characteristic shape similar to a "T" due to the branching of the stem in two opposite directions. The method can not do without a timely and targeted pruning. In this phase it is essential to leave only the sprouts in a useful position in the development mentioned above. This reduces the number of pruning cuts.

Guyot pruning

In the construction of the plant, one of the key parts is made by the formation of the stem. The stem makes possible the continuity of the blood vessels between the roots and the aerial part and vice versa. At this stage it is important to research the linearity to avoid bottlenecks or impediments that hinder an efficient lymphatic flow. It is therefore important to start with a methodical approach from the first pruning. During the first year of vegetation different from rooted shoots start. By pruning you choose the two most vertical shoots. With the winter pruning is usually chooses the most vertical branch that will spur a gem away. In the second year of vegetation from rooted and will depart from the spur several shoots. With the green pruning will take only the two sprouts coming from the spur, thus ensuring the continuity in the vessels of transport. In winter, after the leaves have fallen, we have thus two branches. Between these two will choose the most vertical branch, which will be cut to the wire bending. The buds of the third year of vegetation will set the pruning leaving four shoots that start from the stem just built. The most important one is placed at 20-25 cm below the wire bending. In pruning you decide the final height of the stem, cutting at the branch most important (20-25 cm under the wire) which will become fruiting. This branch will be folded having the foresight to make a bending "to close", ie by folding the side opposite to the side of growth. Deliberately, at this stage, you set the Guyot without spur below the fruit head, thus avoiding the next pruning cutting of wood for 3 years. As we shall see, from now on, will run only on wood cuts of 1 or 2 years of age.

Opening of the horizontal channels

The buds of the fourth year of growth thanks EFF pound of bending close, it will reduce acrotonia (ie, the sprouting of buds farther away than the insertion of the branch on the trunk) of the plant by increasing the probability of emission of shoots from basal buds. These shoots are needed to start the development of the two horizontal channels. Only when we have the presence of two opposite branches placed on the same level at the base of fruiting, the Guyot be set up with the spur to a gem away from the head to one side and fruit on the other. Otherwise you will continue bending to close the first branch profit without setting the spur. At the beginning of the fifth year of vegetation you choose the shoots to continue the development of the two horizontal channels. In practice there will be two of the spur and the first two at the base of fruiting. The number of buds to leave on fruiting will vary according to business goals, environmental, genetic, etc.. This operation, repeated year after year, will enable the consolidation and controlled development of the two channels. The growth of horizontal channels, over time, will give the opportunity to spend even Guyot.

Pruning of cordon

In the construction of the plant hold exactly the same premises underlined for the pruning of the Guyot, as well as in this case it is essential to start with a methodical approach since the first pruning. During the first year of vegetation different from rooted shoots start. By pruning you choose the two most vertical shoots. With the winter pruning is usually chooses the most vertical branch that will spur a gem away.

In the second year of vegetation from rooted and will depart from the spur several shoots. With the green pruning are held only the two sprouts coming from the spur, thus ensuring the continuity in the vessels of transport. In winter, after the leaves have fallen, we have thus two branches. Between these two you choose the most vertical branch that will be cut to the wire bending. The buds of the third year of vegetation you set the pruning leaving four shoots that start from the stem just built. The most important is positioned about 25 cm below the wire bending.

In pruning you choose the branch in useful position (about 25 cm under the wire), which will be bent having the foresight to make a bending "to close", ie by folding the side opposite to the side of growth. As already mentioned the folding to close has the effect of reducing the acrotonia and obtain a more uniform germination. During bending will try to place the first bud facing upward near the guardian not to lose space in setting the future spurs.

Setting the secondary manifolds

At the beginning of the fourth year of vegetation on the horizontal cordon held the shoots that start from the buds facing up, plus a reserve on the stem. With the winter pruning the branches vertical will be rammed in a bud away, fi ssando the location of future secondary manifolds. As we shall see, from now on will be executed only on wood cuts of 1 or 2 years. During the fifth year of vegetation, with the pruning you choose to leave the shoots to continue the development of the secondary manifolds, removing the shoots that come from old wood.

In practice there will be only two buds from the spurs. With the winter pruning is renewed on the spur pruning branch inserted in a more upright position. This operation, repeated year after year, will enable the consolidation and development of controlled secondary manifolds. The results obtained after twenty years of application of our method are visible.

Recovery of old vineyards

The method can be introduced in the vineyards of any age bred Guyot and spurred cordon pruned in a 'traditional'. Beforehand you need to check the state in which the plants pay on average of the vineyard to decide how to operate. It then performs a check of the 'vitality' of the drums to try to predict the response of flushing in the positions 'crucial' for different types of farming. For the vineyards Guyot it starts with the identification of the position of "head" on the stem. If on the head there are no significant signs of necrosis that make impossible the development of new shoots, then it will set the development of 2 channels. For the vineyards to cordon it starts with the identification of the best locations for the recovery of vegetative points. If at these points there are important necrosis, we will set the development of 'secondary collectors. " In the event that the "heads" of Guyot and vegetative points on the cords rammed are irremediably compromised, without the possibility of recovery, you will have to perform the reconstitution ex novo of the stem.

Revitalize the "head of willow" of Guyot

In most situations it is possible to retrieve the location ideal 'head' where to build the two horizontal channels. However it is often difficult to achieve immediately the recovery, because in this position there are buds profits or, in the most fortunate cases, there is only one bud to use as fruiting. It is therefore necessary to restore the vitality of these areas. The key issue is the role of the fold to close the fruiting to improve the sprouting of buds at this point. The goal is to stimulate the development of branches in the correct position, you can choose how and fruiting spur to begin the formation of the two channels. In case it is decided to reconstitute the stem, it should raise a sucker to the base of the stem just above the coupling point. Then the sucker will be set according to the method as if it were a new plant, while maintaining the production of the plant to replace.

Revitalize vegetative points of the cordon

The main problem of the beads rammed pruned so "traditional" is the loss of vegetative points. The main cause, as we have seen, is in the repeated cuts, and their sores, present on said items and operated to disallow the removal of spurs from the main cord. Retrieve a cordon vegetative means having to recover the points lost. The recovery of "secondary manifolds" or vegetative points is through a winter pruning that removes all unnecessary branches and a timely intervention of suckering. The elimination of redundant branches, ie those that are outside of an ordered spatial distribution of the horizontal cordon, allowing a more balanced sharing of strains of the plant, which focus on the spurs left by the pruner. Important is the elimination of the spurs facing downwards. This work leads to a better and uniform germination of the positions of vegetative points chosen. Another important aid to the consolidation of vegetative points is provided by a timely scacchiatura to concentrate the energy given by the reserve substances in the production of sprouts only in defined points during the winter pruning. Repeated and consecutive interventions of this kind allow in most cases unexpected recoveries. In case it is decided to carry out the reconstitution of the stem, as in the case of the Guyot, it should raise a sucker to the base of the stem just above the graft and then follow the path of formation of a cordon as if it were a young plant.

Staff training

We believe that to get a good result in terms of quality of work and efficiency of execution are needed at least three years of application of the method. The process of training provides a theoretical and practical application of the method at the beginning of each crop year to all company personnel. During the pruning is done in a continuous tutoring pruners to correct mistakes. The company managers are actively involved in the process of mentoring, with the goal of becoming the future of corporate reporting in the management of pruning according to the method. Although it may sound complicated, the construction of a reasoned and respectful cutting is within the reach of all persons who have sufficient sensitivity practice. The training of staff and the hours devoted to work in the vineyard to achieve a good knowledge are an important investment to reduce the mortality of the strains and extend the life of plants.

The Schools of pruning

Arise from the need to teach - or better reinsegnare - to prune the vine. We found ourselves faced with the problem of training the workers involved in the pruning in all the companies that we followed. This experience has led us, in short, to launch - in 2008 - the non-profit project of the Schools of pruning vines tended to emphasize the role of the pruner to restore dignity to an ancient art, a craft that in the last 30 years had been completely forgotten. Accomplice mechanization, pruning techniques have become very invasive, inflicting injury to the plants to which they are not able to react. There are no more pruners who stop in front of each screw to act according to its specific needs. We have worked and tried to transfer their tradition today, changing the approach to the screw. Hence the need for permanent regional training schools. We have created the first schools pruning of the vines, as an experiment, which took place at the Faculty of Gastronomic Sciences in Pollenzo (Bra, Cuneo) in Piemonte and Fondazione Enzo Morganti at the Agricola San Felice Castelnuovo Berar-dengue in Chianti Classic (Siena). The results are even exceeded all data forecasting, and thus we set pruning other schools in other regions. The idea of ​​the schools also has considerable environmental importance: the viticultural landscape is in fact respected and cared for in its specificity, away from the approval of mechanical pruning, which make all the same Italian vineyards, disregarding the types of traditional cultivation, other region to region. In addition, the school, in addition to re-evaluate a trade, it could create an outlet for young people working in the field of eco-green jobs.

Article from: The Agrarian Informer number 36/2009 SPECIAL winter pruning of the vine