Types of farming

Through farming systems must achieve a high canopy surface, a reduced density of the canopy, a balanced development of the buds, a good exposure of the grapes and a vegetative-productive balance (right balance between shoots and clusters), the choice of the most for you will depend very much on the environmental conditions in which they work, from the vine and the level of mechanization desired. In our reality there are many wine-growing forms of cultivation, very different from each other, which, according to the spatial distribution of vegetation, can be in the counter, open canopy or curtain in volume and roof.
The first ones are the most common forms are divided into renewed branch (Guyot and upside down or bow) and permanent cordon systems (cordon and sylvoz).
The guyot is a form of farming spread throughout Italy, is typical of the less fertile soils and driest of the hill, where the screw has a rather limited development, which consists, in addition to the strain in a fruiting 7-8 gems on which production occurs year, and, on the other side of a spur of 2 buds that will produce the following year. The scaffold is formed by poles apart on row 5-6 m having a height of 1.8 m above ground three floors connected by wires, the first, with a diameter of 18 mm to 0.8 m from the ground, supports the head in fruit and the strain, the other, 16 mm diameter, are double strands of containment seats respectively to 0.4 and 0.5 m from the previous plane and have the purpose of supporting the vegetation. The planting density on the row range from 0.8 to 1.5 m between rows 2.5 to 3 m, with a density between 2800 and 5000 plants / ha; Guyot has a low number of buds per hectare , variable between 28000 and 40000.
The headband is a modified Guyot, is made from the strain, on which you enter the fruit head bent down, and the spur, in the most fertile soils and vigorous vines are left with two branches forming the double inverted. The poles supporting the scaffolding have a height of 2-2.5 m above ground, distance along the row of 5-6 m, the trunk comes up to the 2nd wire, 18 mm diameter and placed at a height of 1.5 m, which are folded on the fruiting canes and bind to the first wire having a diameter of 16 mm and located at 1 m from the ground and the other 3 planes of wires (wires double containment) come on top of the pole and are 0.3-0.4 m away from each other. The planting density on the row are 1.5 m between rows range from 2.5 to 3 m, with an average density of 2500 vines / ha, of which have a double inverted medium-low number of buds / ha (around to 50000). In addition, the vegetation is not uniform along the fruiting, problems with canopy management and differences in maturation of the grapes.
The cordon is a form of cultivation is not suitable for areas of high fertility in the soil and climate which leads to a reduction of vigor (hilly areas in general) or when you use a variety poor vegetative growth, but which have a good fertility in first buds of the shoot. The system consists of a vertical stem, the height of the first wire continues as permanent cordon on which are inserted dorsally spurs of 2-4 buds, appropriately spaced (15-20 cm). The scaffolding is like that of Guyot, the planting density on the row are 1 to 1.5 m between rows range from 2.5 to 3 m, with an investment between 2200 and 4000 vines / ha, and the cordon has an average number of buds / ha, ranging between 50000 and 80000.
The sylvoz is a form of farming that has found an audience in the cold and humid lowland environments (especially in Veneto), because the land is fertile in which the vigorous cultivars to better express their potential and uptake of light is favored by the aerial part with benefits on photosynthesis, the sugar content of the must and the differentiation of flower buds. Is formed by a trunk vertical, the height and along the 2nd thread, continues as a permanent cord on which they are inserted dorsally heads to fruit to 7-8 buds, appropriately spaced (15-20 cm), these are folded and linked to the first wire. The structure of the scaffold is similar to the double inverted, in this case the height of the 2nd thread, carrying the cord, is of 1.6-1.8 m, while that of the first, where they bind the branches, is of 1-1,2 m, the total height of the structure reaches 2.5-3 m. The planting density on the row are between 1.5 and 2.5 m between rows range from 2.5 to 3 m, with an investment between 1700 and 2500 vines / ha, of which sylvoz has a medium-high of buds / ha, ranging between 80000 and 120000.
In Friuli is a variant of the widespread Sylvoz, said Casarsa, in which the heads to fruit are free and therefore there is not the first thread, then the structuring is more simple and less costly compared to the management Sylvoz as the branches do not require ligatures.
Among the systems to crown open the most important is the GDC (Geneva Double Curtain), studied by a working group in the United States in order to mechanize the pruning and harvesting, in Italy it is common in Emilia-Romagna. It consists of a vertical shaft which at a height of 1.7 m above the ground continues with two cords permanent rammed (spurs inserted on the ventral cord) spaced 1.4 m in the horizontal plane. You get the formation of two separate and distinct curtains of vegetation with a better light interception, a less dense vegetation and an increase in fertility gemmary; are also absent the wires containment of vegetation. The scaffold is formed by piles away on row 6 m from each other, with a height of 1.8-2 m from the ground, to 1.6-1.7 m from the ground on the poles are fixed two arms moving upward, 0.7 m long each, to open the purse strings, both will be supported by a wire with a diameter of 20-22 mm. The planting density between the rows is 4 m in order to allow the passage of vintage machines, while the rows are of 1-1.5 m with an investment of 1600-2500 vines / ha, the GDC has a medium-high number of buds / ha, ranging between 80000 and 100000.
The classic form of cultivation in volume is the tree, very popular in Puglia, Sicily and Sardinia as the climate is hot and dry with little vegetative growth of vines, and for this reason it is also feasible at the northern limits of vine cultivation. This system is formed from a strain having a height of 0.3-0.4 m, on which are inserted four branches, each with two long spurs 2-3 buds, is characterized by the absence of scaffolding and is not mechanized. The planting density is variable between 1 and 3 m between the rows is that the row, with a density of 1,100 to 10,000 plants / ha; sixths of the tree with 2 X 2 has a low number of buds / ha (40000) .
The main form of farming in the tent roof, used in environments with high light radiation and low humidity, it is very common in Abruzzo, Apulia, Campania and Sicily, and especially for table grapes. The system consists of a vertical shaft supported by a pole, from which, at 1.8-2 m above the ground, the fruiting canes branch off at right angles to each other, creating a continuous marquee. The scaffold is formed by poles protruding 2-2.2 m out of the ground and, in addition to the screw, support a network of wires placed at a height of 2 m, the wires that connect the guardians have a diameter of 20 mm (large network), while those who support the new vegetation (small network) have a smaller diameter. The planting density forming a square 2 X 2 X 3 m or 3 m, with an investment variable from 1100 to 2500 vines / ha, the tent has a medium-high number of buds, varying between 70000 and 100000.
Another farming system in the roof is the pergola, which is used in environments with high fertility or mountain of the north - central Italy (Trentino-Alto Adige, Emilia Romagna and in Verona). From the trunk, at a height of 1.6-1.9 m, is impalcano two fruiting canes of 8-12 buds per vine. The scaffold is made of poles, the top connects with the wooden slats that form a horizontal roof (Veronese pergola) or tilted upward (Trentino pergola), covering the bunches by the strong radiation in summer and allowing support for sprouts in case of wind. In hilly areas the planting density on the row are between 0.8 and 1 m between the rows varies from 3 to 4 m (in plain 6-8 m between rows, pergolas are doubles), with an investment of between 2400 to 5000 vines / ha, the number of buds / ha is medium-high, between 80000 and 120000.